A healthy person’s immune system helps the body resist infections. It knows how to discriminate between what is good for the body and what is bad for it. The immune system even remembers infections it resisted in the past so it can fight them more effectively a second time round. When a person becomes diabetic their immune system turns against them to destroy insulin-producing cells. This leads to high blood glucose levels that significantly increase risks of heart disease and other serious illnesses. Diabetes 2 sufferers can control their diabetes with diet and exercise, but Diabetes 1 sufferers need to give themselves insulin shots.

1. Laboratory Tests

If a laboratory blood test shows that a patient’s blood sugar is greater than 200 mg/dl without fasting, or greater than 126 mg/dl while fasting for at least eight hours (drinking water is allowed), they need to get a professional medical diagnosis. Such high levels of blood sugar are found in people with diabetes. Even if the blood sugar level is not greater than these levels but still much higher than average it gives cause for concern. Many people are in a pre-diabetes stage where they still have the opportunity to avoid becoming diabetic through changes in diet and exercise.